CONVENTION BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND PROTOCOLS
Actualizado: 17 de sep de 2019
In the last decades, conservationists and institutions in charge of protecting natural heritage began to present studies, data and research to demonstrate to the authorities the needed to realize general changes in the initiatives of the conservation and the needed to create policies and activities to protect the biological diversity and to realize a sustainable use of the natural resources.
A new conservationist movement develops a multidisciplinary “new science” known as “conservation biology” which objective was the decrease of biological loss, for this reason developed research methodologies to create measures of conservation better documented and more effectives, (Soule, 1985). Besides of the efforts to achieve the natural heritage conservation, the reality is that there was a discrepancy between the biological research and the applications of the measures to the protection of the biodiversity.
So, in the 90s, the Convention on Biological Diversity was created to defend the sustainable development. This document is a multilateral treaty signed in 1992 in the “Earth Summit” in Rio de Janeiro and it entered into force in 1993. It was signed by 168 countries of the 196 parties. In this document explain its main goals that they would like to achieve that are the following:
-Conservation of biological diversity
-Sustainable use of its components
-Equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources
It is the first time that an international document recognizes that biodiversity conservation is a common concern to humankind, that States have sovereign rights over their own biological resources, and that they are responsible for conserving their biological diversity and for using the biological resources in a sustainable manner. So the States are the responsible to create inventories of animals and plants, reports about the biodiversity of their area, etc, but a negative aspect is the Article 11 that says: “Measures Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and as appropriate, adopt economically and socially sound measures that act as incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of components of biological diversity”. This international document does not present any article with a general procedure in case of unfulfilment of the agreed measures. It is an important point to consider, because the measures could not be mandatory by State Parties. The CBD adopted other two important documents that help to achieve its objectives:
On 2000, the Conference of the Parties (COP), the governing body of the Convention Biological Diversity, adopted an agreement to the Convention: Cartagena Protocol in Biosafety. The Protocol entered into force on 2003. The goal of this protocol is: “to contribute to ensuring an adequate level of protection in the field of the safe transfer, handling and use of 'living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology' that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, and specifically focusing on transboundary movements” (Article 1 of the Protocol, SCBD 2000). The Protocol has 170 Parties, which includes 167 United Nations members, State of Palestina and European Union.
The second document is the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity is a 2010 supplementary agreement to the 1992 (CBD). It provides a transparent legal framework for the implementation of one of the three objectives of the CBD: the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, thereby contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. The Protocol was adopted on 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan, and entered into force on 12 October 2014. It has been ratified by 69 parties, which includes 68 states and the European Union.
Another tool for conservation of biological diversity was created by the 10th meetings of the Conference of the Parties held in Nagoya (Japan, 2010). In this meeting was adopted the “Strategic Plan for Biodiversity” that includes “Aichi Biodiversity Targets” (2011-2020). Parties agreed to translate this overarching international framework into revised and updated national diversity strategies and action. This new agreement has the following strategic goals:
a. To address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society
b. To reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use
c. To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity
d. To enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services
e. To enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building and traditional knowledge.
The lack of scientific information moved international institutions to create a tool that could strengthen the scientific base of decision making about environmental policies by the Governments. Due of this, different organisms has developed, and now, they are realizing global evaluations about the state of Biodiversity. They report data about the degraded superficies, biodiversity loss, and threatened species, effect of climate change in the environment, etc. and they try to discover which the reasons that are originating these problems are: economic activities, environmental laws, implication of institutions, etc. Some of these assessor organisms are:
IPCC:Intergovernmental Planet of Climate Change. It is a scientific intergovernmental body under the auspice of United Nation set up at request of member governments. It bases its assessment on the published literature, all kind of scientific and experts can contribute writing their reports which are reviewed by the governments.
GIWA: Global International Water Assessment. It is a water program led by the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP). The objective of GIWA is to produce a compressive and integrated assessment of international water (comprising marine, coastal, freshwater areas, surface water, etc) to minimize the damage realized in the international water in all level (national, regional and local).
GEO: Global Ecosystem Outlook. These reports demonstrate the environmental situation. They are published by United Nation Environmental Program. In this moment, five Geo reposts have been published, the last one in 2012.
MA: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA). It is the most important data to the subject studied in this paper because in its document could find the relation between state of the ecosystem and the human well-being.